Agriculture Corner

Classification of Climate with Respect to Agriculture


This article discusses the climate classification with respect to agriculture sector. Mainly 4 classes exists on this basis. These are as follows:-

  1. Tropical Climate
  2. Temperate Climate
  3. Sub-Tropical Climate
  4. Polar Climate

Details of these are presented below. This article further highlights factors that affect climate.

Classification of Climate with Respect to Agriculture

Tropical Climate

It is a type of climate, where average monthly temperature changes little during the year and lengthy of the day changes only slightly at different times of years. The climate is severe in nature due to intense heat of sun and bears very high rainfall, cloudy weather and high humidity. Soil is rich and fertile due to presence of more organic matter. Bacterial activities are high.

Temperate Climate

Temperate climate is characterized by warm summer with long days and cool winter with short days and long nights. It bears moderate temperature and enough rainfall. Frost and snow may occur. There are heavy rains on the coast side and comparatively low towards interior.

Sub-Tropical Climate

It is between tropical and temperature climate.

Polar Climate

This climate is found on both poles of the earth. Highest temperature does not exceed 50oF. it remains very severe cold all the year. Foggy and snowy weather prevails always.

Factors that Affect Climate

Altitude (Height from sea level)

In elevated region air is thinner and does not receive much heat as there less dust particles to intercept sunrays and thus climate poor. Murree is cooler than Faisalabad.

Latitude (Southern and Northern distances from equator)

Place nearly equator are always hot as the sun rays fall perpendicular during the year. Places which are away from the equator are colder e.g. Indo-Pak is warmer than China and China is warmer than Japan.

Position and Direction of Mountains

The interception of warm and moist winds by high mountains that causes heavy rain falls on one side while in other side may remain dry.


They affect climate by causing more humidity and rainfall.

Slope of the Land

If slope of a land is towards sun the climate of that place will be warm because the sun rays fall perpendicular. When the sun rays fall parallel, climate is cool.


Moist winds cause rain and make the atmosphere cool.


Countries receiving more rainfall have moist and cool climate whereas countries receiving low or no rainfall possesses dry and hot climate.

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[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2019, March 21). Classification of Climate with Respect to Agriculture [Blog Post]. Retrieved from [/box]

Agriculture Corner

An Introduction and Benefits of Agroforestry


An Introduction to Agroforestry

This article deals with giving an introduction to agroforestry along with its benefits. For ease of understanding, the benefits of agroforestry are further divided into two group viz., short term benefits of agroforestry and long term benefits of agroforestry.

The concept of agroforestry is not new and is in practice for quite a long time. It is the integrated and self-sustained land management system that involves the growing of agricultural crops deliberately along with the trees or woody components. It may also include rearing of livestock along with cropping of trees. Common thing in both cases is that the agricultural and forestry activities are carried out on the same piece of land with the aim to meet not only the ecological needs of a region but also socio-economic needs of the people. The importance of agroforestry lies in the fact that there is both ecological and economic interaction between different components.

An agroforestry system is more preferable than growing trees in isolation because the crops bring the revenue for the farmers when the trees are too young to earn something for them. In addition to this tress brings more stability against harsh climatic parameters like intense rains, winds and help in reducing soil erosion. More benefits of agroforestry are discussed in next section.

Benefits of Agroforestry

There are numerous benefits of agroforestry ranging from providing food security to fuel and fodder availability to the livestock. Fruits shelter and shade provided by agroforestry system are some notable outcomes of this system. A detail idea regarding benefits from agroforestry is presented below.

Short Term Benefits of Agroforestry

  • Less attack of pests and diseases on regular crops due to lack of favorable host plants in the presence of trees.
  • Regular income
  • Short term crops meets the need of food and fodder supply
  • Less soil erosion.
  • Increased activity of soil microorganisms.
  • Water table is sustained.

Long Term Benefits of Agroforestry

  • Overall stability to the ecosystem
  • The soil and crop productivity is increased.
  • The socio-economic living being of the farmers is increased.
  • Continuous nutrient recycling.

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[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2019, March 21). An Introduction and Benefits of Agroforestry [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]

Agriculture Corner

An Introduction to Farm Machinery


Introduction of farm machinery in farming has created wonders to cater the needs of exploding population of the world. The crop production has now become much more efficient and farming practices have become faster just because of utilization if farm machinery.

Since the introduction of farm machinery, there have been continues researches to make them more powerful, less time consumable, energy efficient etc. The work of almost 20-30 men is now competed by one man using farm machinery.

Due to inventions of so many machines, performing different tasks, it is necessary to group them for easy classification and understanding. Following table classify different farm machines based on the kind of work or operation they perform in the field.

S. No. Farming Operation Farm Machinery Used
1 Chopping and Burying Rotary Hoes and Trash Cultivators
2 Compactors Culti-Packers and Rollers
3 Crop Handling Flexible Hoes, Augers, Chaff Cutters, Hammer Mills, Driers, Corn Shellers, Seed Graders, Elevators etc.
4 Dairying Separators and Milking Machines
5 Deep Penetration Sacrifiers, Deep Tillers, Chisel Ploughs and Subsoil Ploughs.
6 Digging Out Deep Sacrifiers and Cane Grubbers
7 Digging, Turning and Burying Disc Ploughs and Mould Board Ploughs
8 Earth Moving Laser Land Levelers, Bulldozers, Loaders, Scoops, Trench Diggers, Graders, Front End Loaders etc.
9 Fertilizer Spreaders Liquid Ammonia Drills, Rotary Spreaders and Direct Drop Spreaders
10 Harvesting All Type of Harvesters for Crops, Fruits and Vegetables, Balers, Pickup Balers, Reapers and Blinders, Ensilage Machines, Headers and Hay Making Machines.
11 Irrigation Fixed Sprays, Center Point Irrigators, Travelling Irrigators, Sprinklers, Pumps etc.
12 Loosening and Weeding Spike Harrows, Disc Harrows, Rod Weeders, Cultivators, Hoes, Tillers etc.
13 Mowers Rotary Blade Movers and Flail Mowers
14 Prime Movers Tractors
15 Sowing Seed Broadcasters, Seeders, Drills, Trans-planters, Minimal Tillage Seeders etc.
16 Spraying Boom Sprays, Knapsack Sprays and Orchard Sprays.

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[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2019, March 20). An Introduction to Farm Machinery [Blog Post]. Retrieved from Introduction to Farm Machinery/[/box]

Agriculture Corner

What is Ecology?


Ecology is a common word that we come across in daily life in reference to many aspects generally but specifically from environment perspective. In general, it is a word that roots from Greek origin. The Greek word “olkos” means the “house” where “logy” means “The Science of” or precisely “the study of”.

If we look at the literal meaning, it is the study of ‘earth’s household’. The members of this household include the animals, plants, insects, micro-organisms and humans that live together and interdependent to each other. However it is to be noted that earth also comprises of seas, ocean, land, air and freshwater resources, so ecology is the ‘study of structures and functions of nature’. This definition is more comprehensive in a sense that mankind is the part of nature.

Another more comprehensive definition may be; “totality of relationships between organisms and environment is called as ecology. From human perspective, it studies the relations between the mankind with its organic as well as inorganic factors to live on earth and to run his livelihoods and marinating the socioeconomic affairs.

The factors that are studied in combination with human interaction to them are not limited but include the following;

  • Soil
  • Animals
  • Fire
  • Water
  • Light
  • Temperature
  • Atmosphere
  • Non-green plants
  • Green plants
  • Gravity

This shows that in ecology, the scientist learns how the earth and life are interacting with each other. It also includes the study of behavior of ‘life’ in interacting with the other factors of ecology to sustain itself in a comfortable environment.

It is also important while studying ecology, one should not forget to learn the other aspects related to ecology especially the ‘balance’ that should be prevail among various factors of ecology.

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[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2019, March 20). What is ecology? [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]

Vegetable Gardening

How to Grow Spinach At Home in Kitchen Garden


About 25% of world’s population is suffering from anemia: a complication caused by iron deficiency and expressed in terms of loss of work efficiency. Thanks to the loving nature that has gifted us iron rich vegies i.e. spinach.   If you want healthy lifestyle for your family and you have some garden patch, trust me you are such a blessed person. Why not grow spinach at home because there is nothing like freshly grown vegie for your kitchen.

Spinach is a cold weather loving leafy green vegetable, yet some varieties can be grown in summers also. It needs fertile soil rich in nitrogen, well drainage and neutral Ph. Spinach can be started indoors at balcony/terrace or garden using seeds. It requires full sun to partial shade of (may be) taller plants. Soil should be fertilized with animal manure prior to sowing.

Sowing is performed in late fall and spring in mild to cool temperatures at the depth of 1 inch and 1 feet apart. Better chose seeds of disease resistant variety such as ‘Melody’ as spinach is prone to fungal diseases. Regular watering will aid in quick germination of seeds which usually takes 1 to 2 weeks. Spacing of 12 inches in between the rows facilitates well aeration. To avoid animal interference, it’s ideal to grow spinach in fenced location in the garden. Spinach grows very quickly so harvesting can be performed once leaves have reached appropriate size. If plant is harvested just above the crown, there are fair enough chances that it will regrow sending more fresh leaves.

Small baby leaves are absolutely yum once sautéed with butter. Adding to your food menu ‘Palak paneer’ is a very famous sub-continental dish where cottage cheese is served with spinach. Overheating the spinach will lessen its iron content leaving only fiber behind.

Spinach can be an excellent addition to your kitchen garden. Let’s involve our young ones also in kitchen gardening who usually don’t like veges.

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[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2019, March 20). How to Grow Spinach At Home in Kitchen Garden [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]


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