Agriculture Corner

Arid Agriculture and Moisture Deficiency


In arid lands of Pakistan and India, water is the chief limiting factor in optimum crop production. On the other hand, unfortunately, it is also the most wasted factor of production in arid land agriculture system.  The water resources are not uniformly distributed in arid agriculture system.  In many parts of Pakistan and India, water resources are abundant where they are required least and areas where there requirement is most, they are scarce and hence no or less production is achieved from agriculture sector. Moisture deficiency in arid lands is thus a growing issue.

It is also a fact that the chance of having a bumper crop of wheat depends largely on the healthy production of wheat in arid lands whether it is Pakistan or India. This is because; the irrigated agricultural lands are already producing the crops at their full potential. Those areas have abundant water along with optimum supply of fertilizer as the farmers there have good financial resources to supply fertilizers to their lands. On the other hand, arid agriculture has not only limited supply of water that results in less production and less profits to the farming community and that is why production of crop depends highly on good supply of rain water in arid lands.   

The current moisture deficiency in arid regions doesn’t mean that they have lack of water resources. In many dry regions of Pakistan and India, there are several potential water resources that could be developed and additional water can be made available by increasing efficiency of existing water resources and by improving water conservation practices. These practices can be clubbed together under two main approaches. More detail about these two approaches for improving moisture deficiency in arid regions can be accessed from below two links. These are;

  1. Preserving rain water at the root zone level in arid agriculture
  2. Reducing soil evaporation in arid agriculture

Under these two approaches, there are several methods that can be adopted. To learn more, click above two links.

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ] Rahman, M. A. (2018, September 20). Arid Agriculture and Moisture Deficiency [Blog Post]. Retrieved from [/box]

Agriculture Corner

Objectives of Adult Education in Agriculture


Without designing proper objectives on paper, success rate of any educational program is minute. In the case of adult education in agriculture, the responsibly of extension officer or adult education agent increases manifolds. This is because of the reason that it is somewhat tricky and slightly difficult to teach adults than the children due to less accepting attitude and lack of interest in learning and adopting new technologies and innovations. In the light of this, the objectives of adult education in agriculture are needed to be based on specific needs or precisely should be based to address demand driven problems.

Before going to deliver adult education, extension officer should equip himself with the demands and solutions of the farmers in the targeted area, so that objectives of adult education in agriculture are addressed optimally.   

Objectives of Adult Education in Agriculture

Below is the list of 9 important objectives of adult education in agriculture that should be given due importance while designing any adult education program for farmers.

  • First and foremost objective of adult education is to convince and encourage them to adopt new and improved technology in farming operations. The communication skills and convincing power of adult education expert is of utmost importance here.
  • Develop abilities in the farmers that can enhance their managerial skills so that farming is turned from ‘just farming’ to successful business.
  • Teach them such techniques that increase their abilities to make farm a better living place.
  • Adult education program should be up to date and provide farmers with latest and innovative farming techniques and information.
  • Democracy is vital in making any business of life successful. Adult education program should develop awareness of the value of democracy to farmers.
  • The program should develop and maintain favorable social environment in the farming community.
  • Increase the farmer’s interest in farming by incorporating such knowledge and understanding about care, well being and physical fitness on the farm.
  • The program of adult education should use such tools that are easy to understand for farming community.
  • The adult education program should be designed and deliver in local language of the targeted area. This will increase the overall efficiency of the program.

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[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ] Rahman, M. A. (2018, May 31). Objectives of Adult Education in Agriculture [Blog Post]. Retrieved from [/box]


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Agriculture Corner

Functions of Adult Education in Agriculture


Adult education is one of the key components in agriculture extension service programs, designed for any farming community globally. This is because of the low literacy rate that exits in farming communities especially in the developing nations to make them competitive in farming operations. In the light of this, there are several functions of adult education in agriculture sector. These are categorized into three main functions. Following paragraphs will highlight the functions of adult education in agriculture sector.

Functions of Adult Education in Agriculture

Breaking Orthodoxy and Encouragement

First, out of three functions of adult education in agriculture is the linking of farmers with the innovations and technology of modern day agriculture. Field experience shows that it is hard to convince the farmers to change the way of old farming practices and to adapt to modern agricultural practices due to their risk aversive behavior.

Similarly applying new technology in farming is another issue for farmers due to illiteracy. So first and foremost function of adult education is to break the orthodoxy. They need to be convinced that adopting to change will bring economic fruits from farming. Encouragement is needed for all this process and it is more feasible to indigenize the modern technology so that farmers can understand it easily.

One think should be kept in mind that extension officer must use effective and dynamic extension techniques for transmitting information while involved in adult education in agriculture.  

Bridge the Gap between Farmers and Research

Second function of adult education in agriculture extension is to bridge the gap between research carried out in research institutes and taking problems of farming community to the research institutes. For this purpose, the adult education officer or extension officer should have sound knowledge and grip over the topic which he is going to teach the farmers.

On the other hand, he should also understand the nature of technology which he is going to transfer to the adult farmers. Another function of adult education that is to be performed by the extension officer is to diagnose the reason of the problems faced by farmers at spot, and if possible, suggest the solutions immediately.

Skill Development in Farmers

Third function of adult education is to equip the farmers with the skills especially the managerial skills, so that they can play their productive role in commercial economy. These can be taught by trainings to the farmers by the adult education officer.

These functions of adult education in agriculture are most important in making the farmers successful.

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, May 29). Functions of Adult Education in Agriculture [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]

Agriculture Corner

Benefits of Integrated Farming System


As discussed in previous article titled Integrated Farming System that it is a system of farming, in which various types of agriculture production activities or enterprises are taking place simultaneously. It is also discussed that it has helped farmers in achieving more economies of scale in farm business. So surely, there are benefits of integrated farming system. This article will now highlight few but important benefits of integrated farming system.

Benefits of Integrated Farming System

Enhanced Productivity is one of the most important benefits of integrated farming system. By increase productivity means that economic yield increases per unit area per unit by time due to intensification of crop and allied farming enterprises.

Profitability factor also increases as productivity increase. This is because we are using the waste material or by-product of one enterprise as an input into other farming enterprise.

Adoption of New Technology is one of the important benefits of integrated farming system. This is because, adoption of technology needs money. Large farmers have finances so they can adopt it easily. However, small farmers usually face shortage in finances. But due to integrated farming system, they have the opportunity to increase their returns from farming and adapt to new technology. 

Environmental Safety is ensured in this approach. How? As we are using the waste material of one enterprise as input into the production function of other type of enterprise, so waste pollution is minimized and hence environmental safety is ensured.

Fight Against Deforestation can win by this approach. Planting timber and fuel wood along with the crops in field not only utilizes the free space of land but also supply wood for many purposes. Hence pressure on natural forests can be reduced and natural ecosystem is preserved.

Few other Benefits of Integrated Farming System

Some other benefits of this type of farming system are listed below;

  • Promotion of Agro-Industry
  • Increased Input Efficiency
  • Cost Minimization for Input Use
  • Increased Employment
  • Fodder Security for Livestock
  • Recycling
  • Continuous Income Round the Year
  • Energy Saving

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, May 27). Benefits of Integrated Farming System [Blog Post]. Retrieved from [/box]


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Agriculture Corner

Adult Education in Agriculture


Adult education in agriculture has a close link. How? As we know, agriculture plays pivotal role in the economic as well as social development of the economy of any nation. In the developing countries, agriculture has central importance due to its direct or indirect involvement in running the engine of economy though generation of employment, production of food, providing raw material for non-agriculture businesses etc.

However in the world of changing technological environment in all sectors of economy and especially in agriculture, there has emerged a bottleneck in achieving desired advancement in agriculture sector especially in developing and third world countries. This is the narrow band of education and illiteracy in these countries. The demand for the establishment of efficient and effective adult educational system in agriculture for the rural farming community is the dire need of time.

The Importance of Adult Education in Agriculture

Agriculture extension is often defined as the out of school and non-formal way of educating the adult farmers in a farming community. It is different from ‘formal education’ in numerous ways. First it is usually carried out in open atmosphere. Second mutual trust and respect is key element between the adult farmers are extension officer or agent. Last but not least, it is the primary process through which adult farmers learn the art of doing farming operations in new and innovative manner using latest technology.

Adult education in agriculture has few characteristics. These are as follows;

  • It is essentially voluntarily,
  • It is demand driven,
  • Problem oriented,
  • Adult education is for action not just an academic exercise,
  • Adult education in agriculture is unique as same level of agricultural art is taught to adult farmers that belong to different formal education level,
  • Farm fields are classrooms for the farmer, and;
  • It has two dimensions of improving the farmer’s livelihood as wee as socio-economic profile of the economy.

A Bottleneck in Programs of Adult Education in Agriculture

A bottleneck or more precisely a problem that resides in programs related to adult education in agriculture is that most of these programs are male oriented and delivered by male extension agents. This deprives the female adult education component and they get neglected and hence true fruits of the adult education in agriculture are not obtained.  

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, May 27). Adult Education in Agriculture [Blog Post]. Retrieved from [/box]


Career in Agriculture

Introduction and Career in Plant Pathology


Plant Pathology, as name portrays that it deals with the study of plant diseases including crops, vegetable, fruits, ornamental etc. Before going deep to discuss the underpinnings of subject Plant Pathology and what opportunities exist when one thinks about career in plant pathology, let us start by looking at the definition of Plant Pathology.

What is Plant Pathology?

Plant pathology is simply the study of the diseases and problems that cause the plant to suffer in terms of health that not only affect growth and development but also the production losses occur. Diseases or ailment here can be considered as the harmful changes in plant body that impact normal functioning of body functions and cause deviation in physiological processes. These are caused by any pathogenic and infectious agent. The harmful agents may include a virus, fungus, a parasite or a bacterium that occupy plant body and affect it.

Importance of Plant Pathology

Most of the researchers and plant pathologists study the diseases that affect the crop plants. Why? This is because the increase in global population has forced the agriculturists to produce more food specifically on commercial scale to meet the demand of food and keep the world a food secure place for humans. However, with the increase in population and food production, there are several new varieties of harmful agents that have evolved over the time that affect plants and especially the crops. As human security is dependent on crops plants; so most of the focus in plant pathology is given to crops.

The plant diseases that directly affect crops have also shown indirect but deep impact on human civilization. A hundred and 50 years ago (150 years ago), Europe faces the worst disease of potato blight fungus of potato crop that devastated the potato crops especially in Ireland. This resulted in to 1 million deaths and about 1,500,000 emigrations from Ireland alone.

Similarly, hundred years ago, a fungus Hemileia vastatrix also known as coffee rust fungus ruined the fields of coffee in today’s SriLanka. The damage was so swear that coffee plantation was replaced by tea plantation. More recently, fifty years ago, brown spot on rice caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, caused death of thousands from starvation in today’s Bangladesh.

The devastation and problems occurred by pathogens has increased of plant pathology. In the modern world of today, the importance of plant pathology has increased many folds. This is because the changing climate of the world has also introduced new varieties of crop and plant pathogens that are unknown few years ago. Sincere efforts and attention is required now address the advancements in plant pathogens if we want to have food secure world and population.

Career in Plant Pathology

A professional degree in Plant Pathology can be obtained after high school. Normally four year degree programs are offered in plant pathology that opens several job opportunities for plant pathologists. To me, career in plant pathology opens challenging as well as learning horizons for the plant pathologist. Here in this section of the article, I am going to discuss few important opportunities when you choose career in plant pathology.

Colleges and Universities

A good scope of job is present in colleges and universities when one chooses career in plant pathology. Research, teaching, and extension are three important domains that can be chosen by a plant pathologist. There is always room for research and based on that research, plant pathology teacher can introduce the students with new advancements in plant pathology. Good salary packages are given to teachers, however, salary may vary for college and university teacher.

Agricultural Consulting Companies

The next best option in career in plant pathology is working as a consultant for agricultural consulting companies. The salaries are good based on skills a plant pathologist has. These companies help firms and farmers in combating against diseases in their field plants or crops.  

Agro-chemical companies

The medicines develop by agro-chemical companies are vital in catering plant diseases. These agro-chemical companies require the services of plant pathologists not only in developing new pesticides and herbicides but also exploring new and innovative ways of controlling plant diseases.

Tissue Culture Laboratories

Next in career in plant pathology is the job opportunities in tissue culture laboratories. Research is required to design disease tolerant crop and plant varieties and for this, these laboratories provide the platform for the plant pathologists to carry out research and innovations in the field of plant pathology.

International Agricultural Research Centers

This is a dream opportunity to work with international research fellows and scientist to learn from global experience in the field of plant pathology. The salaries are surely high, however the demand for work and skills are also high. This platform provides a good path for the scientists to work in collaboration to explore solution of common problems in plant diseases domain.  

Private Practice

Staring a private business is always a good option. Though it requires some investment and marketing campaign, however, once you establish yourself as professional plant pathologists, the rate of return on investment and your skills are huge.  

Other Job Options When You Choose Career in Plant Pathology

There are numerous other job options when you choose career in plant pathology. I am enlisting these other options below;

  • Diagnostic Laboratories
  • Biological Control Companies
  • State Departments of Agriculture
  • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
  • Environmental and Patent Law Firms
  • Garden and Nurseries Centers
  • Public Policy Organizations
  • Lawn and Landscape Maintenance Firms

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, March 21). Introduction and Career in Plant Pathology [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]

Vegetable Gardening

Square Foot Gardening


Square Foot Gardening is an innovative and advance technique of planning small but intensively planted gardens at home. Mel Bartholomew is considered as the pioneer to coin the term Square Foot Gardening. The beauty of this farming technique resides in its application of organic farming techniques combined with other innovative methods to get more and better production from a small piece of land especially in vegetable gardens.

Square Foot Gardening  includes the application of organic gardening techniques along with strong emphasis on composting methods, planting the plants closely and intensively, making raised beds and also bio intensive attention to a small yet clearly defined area of garden.   

Square Foot Gardening

Importance of Square Foot Gardening

The success of this technique lies in the fact that this method is quite beneficial in those areas where the gardener is facing the problem of poor quality of soil. By selecting a confined area for gardening, that plot can be modifies according to the desire and best quality of output as well as production can be obtained. This technique is equally beneficial for those who are new to vegetable gardening or backyard gardening. It is also proved to be a recreational activity for the people with disabilities those allowing them to enjoy the leisure time efficiently.

Method of Square Foot Gardening

The basic idea behind this technique is using an open bottomed box that is placed on the soil that contain finite amount of soil. This soil is then divided into various sections according to the desire using grids. To get good quality and quantity of production from vegetable gardening crops each square would be planted with different kind of crop plants. In case of ornamental gardening, the Square Foot gardening is equally beneficial in a sense that spate type of flowers can be grown in each square to increase the aesthetic sense of the garden.   

Square Foot Farming 1 | Arid Agriculture
Square Foot Farming 1

Vegetable Gardening Recommendation for Square Foot Gardening

The Square Foot gardening can be used differently for different types of crops. For instance, a single Tomato plant might consume a full square. Similarly, herbs like Oregano, Mint or Basil also consume a full square. On the other hand, Strawberry plants can be planted four per square. In case of vegetables, sixteen radishes can also be planted and grown per square.

The smaller beds used in square foot gardening are helpful in easy adaptation of the farmer with his/her garden. He can have reach to every single inch of the entire area for gardening practices by avoiding direct stepping on the soil ad making it compact.  

Square Foot Gardening is Effective for Weed Control

Square Foot Gardening  is effective for weed control in a sense that a weed barrier can be made beneath the square foot box. At the bottom of the box, it can be filled with a combination of one third of decayed Sphagnum (peat moss), one third of compost and one third of vermiculture.

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, March 20). Square Foot Gardening [Blog Post]. Retrieved from [/box]

Career in Agriculture

Introduction and Career in Agricultural Economics


Being an Agricultural Economist, I am in a better position to describe what agricultural economics is and also the scope and career opportunities that are open for the fresh graduates if they opt career in agricultural economics. However, like I always say, graduation degree doesn’t mean that you are going to get the job unless and until you have some set of skills that makes you prominent over the other candidates appearing in the job test and especially interview. These skills may include good communication skills, writing skills, sentence structuring, and practical knowledge about few specific and specialized software of your domain of specialization (in case of agricultural economics, STATA, SPSS and Excel). So don’t waste your time in idle things during a semester break. Equip yourself with some expertise related to your field of agricultural science.

This article provides a brief introduction and career in agricultural economics in an attempt to help the students in agricultural sciences during selection of their major subject.

Introduction to Agricultural Economics

Agricultural economics is the applied side of the subject Economics. So what is Economics? As we have learnt in our high schools text books and in literature that;

it is the allocation of scares resources between competing ends for

the maximization of those ends over time

This definition is best applicable to Agricultural Economics where we can define it as

Agricultural Economics is the economics applied to agriculture and rural areas

Why We Study Agricultural Economics?

The question here is that why we study Agricultural Economics? The reason is simple. Agriculture is a complex system that involves the management of natural resources and distribution of these resources among alternating uses in such a way to maximize the utility for benefit of human beings.

Agriculture is pivotal and fundamentally important to any society, nation etc. if we move to a larger canvass and look in the history of economic development, it is the agriculture that drove the cycle of economic development. In fact, industrial development, that catalysis the economic development in the modern day world, is based on agricultural. All the big economics i.e. the developing countries achieve the goal of economic development by using the shoulder of agriculture. Agriculture provides the food security that helps in focusing on other sectors of economy.

This importance of agriculture paved the path of development of a new subject within the domain of economics that is named now Agricultural Economics. It uses the economic principles in solving the issues in agriculture with the aim to improve the production as well as efficiency of agricultural processes.

Career in Agricultural Economics

This part of article provides the chief positions that an agricultural economist can get with at least bachelor degree in hand and knowledge and skills of basic statistic software like STAT, SPSS and Excel. However, acquiring a higher degree of Master level in agricultural economics (in some countries it is regarded as M.Sc. (HONS) or M. Phil) surely increases the chances of getting good job. 

Agriculture Economic Analysts

The most important function an agricultural economics perform is the forecasts of economic setting, with special interest on agriculture. In this type of job, agricultural economist has a closer look at the ongoing agricultural standing. Moreover he uses the information with respect to the economic situation. Then the data they gather is analyzed which results in offering of a sound advice and strategic options for agricultural businesses and individuals related to agriculture. The scope of this kind of job wide in both public and private sectors and the demand of agricultural economist equipped with sound knowledge of related software increases the chances of getting hired fast.

Food Companies

There is a fair chance of getting job in food companies if you opt for career in agricultural economics. These food companies need services of an agricultural economist as they require an expert for advising and strategizing decisions related to the raw ingredient they use in their product.


Teaching as a career in agricultural economics is preferable over many other professions as it is a way of generating technical and skilled human capital in agricultural economics domain that can learn and serve in other parts of an economy effectively and efficiently. After completing the graduation, teaching career in agricultural economics usually starts at undergraduate level and so on. Being an agricultural economics and affiliated with teaching opens new horizon of research opportunities also.

World Bank

Highly skilled and qualified agricultural economists have a fair chance of getting employed by the World Banks as there are specific positions for agricultural economists there. They are involved mainly in the policy formulation portfolio in World Bank. They also analyses the data gathered from all over the world regarding agriculture. The data is used for analysis and forecasting future production and price trends.  

Agricultural Marketing

Agricultural marketing companies provide highly paid employment opportunities to the skilled and hardworking agricultural economist. They strategize the marketing options and opportunities for the marketing companies so to maximize the profit margins. Agriculture commodity marketing is vast. Value addition and value chain management are under the domain of an agricultural economist in agricultural marketing companies.

Other Career Opportunities in Agricultural Economics

In addition to these options, there are several other career opportunities in agricultural economics. These are provided by the;

  • Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
  • World Food Program (WFP)
  • United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
  • NGOs and INGOs
  • Government Ministries like Ministry of Finance, Planning and Development, Food Security, Climate Change, Agriculture etc. (Ministries name may vary in different countries; however the duties and functions needed by an agricultural economist remain the same).

There are several other opportunities when you select career in agricultural economics. However, due to limitations regarding this article, I have tried to encompass chief job opportunities. Hope this article will help the students and job seekers to make rational decision.

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, March 18). Introduction and Career in Agricultural Economics [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]

Agriculture Corner

What is a Watershed?


What is a watershed? This is an important question to be addressed before going into its management. Watershed is an area of land that drains or whose runoff drains into a common collecting point. That point may be a river or water pool. It may also be defined as a natural land entity whose runoff is collected and flows out of area by means of a common outlet so that it can reach to another water body. In fact, it is a drainage basin that is bounded by ridges or gullies.

A Brief to What is a Watershed?

Generally, the term drainage area of catchment area is also used for a watershed. The catchment area is larger than the area of watershed which is comparatively small. Watershed area is the unit from the both angles i.e. water body unit and land unit; however, there are distinct units for both water and land in the catchment area. Due to this, the catchment area consists of all the areas or is connected with all the areas from which water flows out into water pool or common river.

An Introduction to Watershed
An Introduction to Watershed

There exists different water catchment area for different river’s tributaries where water flows out into a common large river or water pool. On the other hand, large drainage area is termed as river basin while the water catchment area of a tributary is termed as sub-catchment area. Different catchment area may be identified in it for it’s certain parts. Therefore, the catchment area of this certain part is called watershed area.

There may be discrepancies in the watershed area. When the area is hilly, undulating or rolling, that means that variations are more in number and thus the watershed area is smaller. While in case of plain we get larger watershed area.

The watershed management in an area may be carried out in a mutual manner. In this the watershed for the agriculture purpose may be composed of several field belong to different farmers and they contribute their runoff at a mutual lower point. This runoff movement on the other hand, depends on the land topography. A drawback faced by the farmers in agriculture is that the runoff from the upper fields that enters into the lower fields in watershed results in water and soil erosion.

After having detailed discussion over what is a watershed, let us now discuss the aims and objectives of watershed in agriculture.

Aims and Objectives of Watershed Management

  • To protect, improve and land resources for sustained and efficient production of crops in agriculture.
  • To protect as well as enhance the water resources, reduce silting up of tanks, moderate floods, increase rainwater conservation for irrigation of agriculture crops and ultimately aid in mitigate droughts.
  • To employ the natural indigenous resources for improving agriculture and its allied sectors or industries that will in turn improve the socio-economic conditions of the local habitants.

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, March 12). What is a Watershed? [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]

Agriculture Corner

Universal Soil Loss Equation


A universal soil loss equation has been developed by the soil scientists to estimate the soil loss from any area around the globe. The equation uses the values of parameters of the factors that affect the soil erosion. These factors are placed in the equation in such a manner that condition of a place like climate, slope of land, crop management, rainfall, temperature and conservation practices are also accounted to get realistic estimates from the universal soil loss equation.

In the coming line the actual universal soil loss equation will be presented along the description of its components.

Universal Soil Loss Equation

A = R*K*L*S*C*P

The equation has a dependent variable that depends on six other independent variables.

Dependent Variable:

A = Computed or estimates variable that represents soil loss per unit area. This variable is the product of the six variables presented on the right hand side of Universal Soil Loss Equation

Independent Variables:

R = refers to the rainfall factor in soil erosion.

K = the soil erodibility factor. Erodibility factor is the average soil loss per unit area per unit of erosion index from cultivated fallow plot.

L = represents the slope length factor.

S = the slope percentage factor.

C = the crop management factor. This is calculated by the ratio of soil loss under a specific cropping system to that of fallow plot.

P = is the soil conservation or erosion control practice factor like contour farming or strip farming etc.

Any student, farmers or scientist interested in estimating the soil loss from the field under his control can use this equation. It is equally applicable to any sort of erosion viz., water or wind erosion that is damaging the soil and depriving it from the nutrients for optimum crop production.

Cite this Article in APA Style as:

[box type=”note” align=”aligncenter” ]Rahman, M. A. (2018, March 11). Universal Soil Loss Equation [Blog Post]. Retrieved from[/box]